Accidents in facilities for storing hazardous materials

  • Goran Tepić Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Siniša Sremac Faculty of Technical Science, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Slobodan Morača Faculty of Technical Science, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Bojan Lalić Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
  • Milan Kostelac Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • Vladimir Stojković Faculty of Technical Science, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Keywords: risk assessment, accidents, hazardous materials, process equipment, domino effect, BLEVE

Abstract

The vital elements of numerous industrial plants include the process equipment which, depending on the nature of the technological process, can be exposed to internal pressure in the general case of a variable size. The typical examples of process equipment are available at LPG stations (distribution centers), fuel tanks, gas boilers, combustion plants, etc. Practical experience and the analysis of the cause of accidents have shown that damage to process equipment is most often followed by the explosions of the tanks in which the flammable substances, such as LPG, petrol, diesel and jet fuel, oils, etc. are stored. The explosion of a tank cannot occur spontaneously, but only results from external factors. This means that the explosion of process equipment is preceded by the primary events whose harmful effects are manifested through the following phenomena: the weakening of the strength of a tank, an increase in pressure above the nominal value, or a combination of the two preceding cases.

References

Abdolhamidzadeh, B., Abbasi, T., Rashtchian, D., Abbasi, S.A., (2011). Domino effect in process industry accidents –An inventory of past events and identification of some patterns, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 24, 575-593.
Antonioni, G., Spadoni, G., and Cozzani, V., (2009). Application of domino effect quantitative risk assessment to an extended industrial area, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 22, 614–624.
Baker, W.E., Cox, P.A., Westine, P.S., Kulesz, JJ., and Strehlow, R.A., (1983). Explosion Hazards and Evaluation, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Baker, W.E., Kulesz, J.J., Ricker, R.E., Bessey Westine, P.S., Parr, V.B., (1997). Workbook for Predicting Pressure Wave and Fragment Effects of Exploding Propellant Tanks and Gas Storage Vessels. NASA CR-134906. NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office,, Washington.
Bariha, N., Mishra, I.M., Srivastava, V.C., (2016). Fire and explosion hazard analysis during surface transport ofliquefied petroleum gas (LPG): a case study of LPG truck tanker accident in Kannur, Kerala, India, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 40 449-460.
Baum, M. R., (1998). Rocket missiles generated by failure of a high pressure liquid storage vessel, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 11, 11–24.
Baum, M. R., (1999). The velocity of end-cap and rocket missiles generated by failure of a gas pressurised vessel containing particulate material, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 12, 259–268.
Baum, M. R., (2001). The velocity of large missiles resulting from axial rupture of gas pressurised cylindrical vessels, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 14, 199–203.
CCPS, Guidelines for Evaluating the Characteristics of Vapor Cloud Explosions, Flash Fires and BLEVE’s, Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, 1994.
Chen, Y., Zhang, M., Guo, P., and Jiang, J., (2012). Investigation and analysis of historical Domino effects statistic, Procedia Eng., 45, 152–158.
Ciarlet, P., (2000). Mathematical Elasticity, Volume III: Theory of Shells, first ed., Elsevier.
Cozzani, V., Antonioni, G., and Spadoni, G., (2006). Quantitative assessment of domino scenarios by a GIS-based software tool, Journal Loss Prev. Process Ind., 19, 463–477.
Cozzani, V., Gubinelli, G., and Salzano, E., (2006). Escalation thresholds in the assessment of domino accidental events, J. Hazard. Mater., 129, 1–21.
Cozzani, V., Tugnoli, A., and Salzano, E., (2007). Prevention of domino effect: From active and passive strategies to inherently safer design, J. Hazard. Mater., 139, 209–219.
Cozzani, V., Salzano, E., Campedel, M., Sabatini, M., and Spadoni,G., (2007). The assessment of major accident hazards caused by external events, 12th Int. Symp. Loss Prev. Saf. Promot. Process Ind., vol. IChemE Sym, no. 153, 331–336.
Cozzani, V., Tugnoli, A., and Salzano, E., (2009). The development of an inherent safety approach to the prevention of domino accidents, Accid. Anal. Prev., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1216–1227.
Darbra, R. M., Palacios, A., and Casal, J., (2010). Domino effect in chemical accidents: Main features and accident sequences, J. Hazard. Mater., 183, 565–573.
Djelosevic, M., Tepic, G., (2018). Identification of fragmentation mechanism and risk analysis due to explosion of cylindrical tank, J. Hazard. Mater., 362, 17-35.
Eckhoff, R.K., (2014). Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVEs): a brief review, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 32.
EN 13445-3:2014 – Unfired pressure vessels – Part 3: Design, 2014.
EN 13445-5:2014 – Unfired pressure vessels – Part 5: Inspection and testing, 2014.
Gubinelli, G., Zanelli, S. and Cozzani, V., (2004). A simplified model for the assessment of the impact probability of fragments, Journal of Hazardous Material, 116, 175–187.
Hauptmanns, U., (2001). A Monte-Carlo based procedure for treating the flight of missiles from tank explosions, Probabilistic Eng. Mech., 16, 307–312.
Hauptmanns, U., (2001). A procedure for analyzing the flight of missiles from explosions of cylindrical vessels, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 14, 395–402.
Hemmatian, B., Abdolhamidzadeh, B., Dabra, R.M., Casal, J., (2014). The significance of domino effect in chemicalaccidents, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 29, 30-38.
Hemmatian, B., Casal, J., Planas, E., & Rashtchian, D. (2019). BLEVE: Thecase of water and a historical survey. J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 57, 231-238.
Holden, P.L., Reeves, A.B., (1985). Fragment hazards from failures of pressurised liquefied gas vessels, IchemE Symposium Series No. 93.
Holden, P.L. , (1988). Assessment of missile hazards: Review of incident experience relevant to major hazard plant, Safety Reliab. Directorate, Health Safety Directorate.
Kang, J., Zhang, J., Gao, J., (2016). Analysis of the safety barrier function: Accidents caused by the failure of safety barriers and quantitative evaulation of their performance, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 43, 361-371.
Khan, F. I., and Abbasi, S. A., (1999). Major accidents in process industries and an analysis of causes and consequences, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 12, 361-378.
Khan, F. I., and Abbasi, S. A. (2001). An assessment of the likehood of occurence, and the damage potential of domino effect (chain of accidents) in a typical cluster of industries, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 14, 283–306.
Khan, F. I., and Abbasi, S. A., (2001). Estimation of probabilities and likely consequences of a chain of accidents (domino effect) in Manali Industrial Complex, J. Clean. Prod., 9, 493–508.
Khan, F. I., and Abbasi, S. A., (2001). Reply to comments on ‘Major accidents in process industries and an analysis of causes and consequences, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 14.
Khakzad, N., Amyotte, P., Cozzani, V., Reniers, G., Pasman, H., (2018). How to address model uncertainty in the escalation of domino effects?, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2018.03.001.
Kim, J. S., An, D. H., Lee, S. Y., and Lee, B. Y., (2009). A failure analysis of fillet joint cracking in an oil storage tank, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 22, 845–849.
Landucci, G., Argenti, F., Spadoni, G. Cozzani, V., (2016). Domino effect frequency assessment: The role of safety barriers, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 44, 706-717.
Liu, X., Zhang, Q., and Xu, X., (2013). Petrochemical plant multi-objective and multi-stage fire emergency management technology system based on the fire risk prediction, Procedia Eng. 62, 1104–1111.
Marshall, V.C., (1987). Major Chemical Hazards, Ellis Horwood, New York.
Mishra, K.B., (2016). Multiple BLEVEs and fireballs of gas bottles: Case of a Russian road carrier accident, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 41, 60-67.
Moore, C.V. , (1967). The design of barricades for hazardous pressure systems,
Nucl. Eng. Des. 5.
Mannan, S., (2012). Lees’ Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, fourth ed., Elsevier, Oxford.
Mébarki, A., Mercier, F., Nguyen, Q.B., Saada, R.A., (2009). Structural fragments and explosions in industrial facilities. Part I: probabilistic description of the source terms, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 408.
Mébarki, A., Nguyen, Q.B., Mercier, F., (2009). Structural fragments and explosions in industrial facilities. Part II: projectile trajectory and probability of impact, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 22.
Nguyen, Q. B., Mebarki, A., Saada, R. A., Mercier, F., & Reimeringer, M. (2009). Integrated probabilistic framework for domino effect and risk analysis. Advances in Engineering Software, 40, 892–901.
Nguyen, Q. B., Mebarki, A., Mercier, F., (2006). Ramdane Ami Saada, M. Reimeringer, The domino effect and integrated probabilistic approaches for risk analysis. Eight International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Sep2006, Las Palmas, Spain. 27-34,
Pasley, H. and Clark, C., (2000). Computational fluid dynamics study of flow around floating-roof oil storage tanks, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 86, 37–54.
Plans, E., Pastor, E., Casal, J., Bonilla, J.M., (2015). Analysis of the boiling expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) of a liquefied natural gas road tanker: The Zarzalico accident, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 34, 127-138.
Sun, D., Jiang, J., Zhang, M., Wang, Z., Huang, G., Qiao, J., (2012). Parametric approach of the domino effect for structural fragments, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 25, 114-126
Sun, D., Jiang, J., Zhang, M., Wang, Y., (2015). Influence of the source size on domino effect risk caused by fragments, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 35, 211-223.
Sun, D., Jiang, J., Zhang, M., Wang, Z., Zang, Y., Yan, L., Zhang, H., Du, X., Zou, Y., (2017). Investigation on the approachof intercepting fragments generated by vessel explosion using barrier net, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 49, 989-996.
Tanackov, I., Janković, Z., Sremac, S., Miličić, M., Vasiljević, M., Mihaljev-Martinov, J., & Škiljaica, I. (2018). Risk distribution of dangerous goods in logistics subsystems. J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 54, 373-383.
Tugnoli, A., Gubinelli, G., Lamducci, G., Cozzani, V., (2014). Assessment of fragment projection hazard: Probability distributions for the initial direction of fragments, J. Hazard. Mater. 279, 418-427.
Yu, Z. F. and Guan, J. L. (2016). Fire and Rescue Combat Technical Training System Construction for Dangerous Chemicals, Procedia Eng., 135, 655–660.
Zhang, J., Laboureur, D., Liu, Y., Mannan, M.S., (2016) Lessons learned from a supercritical pressure BLEVE in Nihon Dempa Kogyo Crystal Inc, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 41.
Published
2019-07-25
How to Cite
Tepić, G., Sremac, S., Morača, S., Lalić, B., Kostelac, M., & Stojković, V. (2019). Accidents in facilities for storing hazardous materials. Operational Research in Engineering Sciences: Theory and Applications, 2(2), 24-39. Retrieved from http://www.oresta.org/index.php/oresta/article/view/22